Saturday, January 18, 2020
Diffusion is simply the net movement of atoms or molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. The force behind the movement is heat or kinetic energy (also called Brownian motion). Diffusion occurs when you spill water on the carpet floor and it spreads out, or when you open a bottle of perfume and it leaves the bottle and spreads throughout the air in the room. Osmosis is a similar phenomenon that moves water from a region of high water concentration to a region of low water concentration. Imagine that a cell from your body is placed in a solution of water. If the concentration of the water inside the cell is the same as the concentration of water in the solution, then we describe the water solution as being Ã¢â¬Å"isotonicÃ¢â¬ or having the same concentration as the water inside the cell. In this case, net movement of water will be zero and the cell will not swell or shrink. In other words, the same amount of water will move in the cells as will move out. On the other hand, if the cell is placed in a solution of water that has a higher concentration (of water) compared to the concentration of water inside the cell, then osmosis will cause more water to move into the cell than will move out and this will cause the cell to swell. In this case, we say that the solution of water is Ã¢â¬Å"hypotonicÃ¢â¬ . Now imagine that the cell is placed in a solution of water that has a lower concentration (of water) compared to the concentration of water inside the cell. In this case osmosis will cause more water to move out of the cell than will move in the cell and the cell will shrink. In this case, we say that the solution is Ã¢â¬Å"hypertonicÃ¢â¬ . Learn more about osmosis and diffusion from Chapter 3 of your textbook. CELERY EXPERIMENT We can place celery in three different water solutions to observe the effects of osmosis on the celery stalks. Salt will serve as our solute to mix with water to make the water either hypotonic, hypertonic or isotonic. The hypotonic solution will contain less salt so that the amount of water compared to salt will be greater than the amount of water inside the cells (compared to the salt and other solutes inside the cell.) The hypertonic solution will contain more salt so that the amount of water compared to theÃ salt will be less than the amount of water inside the cells (compared to the salt and other solutes inside the cell.) The isotonic solution will contain an amount of salt that will be similar to the amount of salt and other solutes inside the cells of the celery. Materials: knife measuring cup and spoon two stalks of celery (they should be fresh and firm, not bend like rubber) table salt three containers with lids (or something to cover the containers) to hold the solutions and the celery stalks filtered or soft water, distilled water works best, tap water will work if it the mineral content is not too high (tap water with high mineral content is called Ã¢â¬Å"hardÃ¢â¬ water) Procedures: 1. cut four pieces of celery that are each two inches long (be sure they are all the same length) 2. make four vertical slices or cuts into the celery but make the cuts only three fourths of the length or 1.5 inches; space the vertical cuts as evenly apart as possible 3. label the three containers A, B and C 4. add one cup of water to each container 5. add NO salt to container Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ 6. add Ã ½ teaspoon of salt to container Ã¢â¬Å"BÃ¢â¬ and stir well 7. add 2 teaspoons of salt to container Ã¢â¬Å"CÃ¢â¬ and stir well 8. place one of your 2 inch cut pieces of celery into each of the three containers and keep the fourth piece as a control for comparison 9. cover the three containers with the lid or cover that you are using, you could use a cling plastic wrap as well 10. wrap the fourth control celery piece tightly in plastic wrap 11. leave the celery pieces in the three containers and the fourth wrapped (control) piece for 6 hours or overnight at room temperature 12. remove the pieces from the containers and bend them while observing how firm or flexible they are 13. record your observations of each of the four pieces of celery below Observations: Solution Flexibility compared to the control stalk (less flexible, similar, more flexible) More water moved into or out of the cells? Indicate which solution was isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic A When the celery stalk was placed in solution A. The water moved through and in the cells of the celery which is an example of osmosis. Water moves through the cells. The stalk was firm and less flexible. More water moved into the celeryÃ¢â¬â¢s cells. The celery stalk was nice and firm after the allotted time. More water and less to no solute, is an example of hypotonic solution. Which means there is Ã¢â¬Å"lessÃ¢â¬ osmotic pressure. B In solution B the celery became a little more flimsy. Solution has a little salt. Slightly less water moved into the celeryÃ¢â¬â¢s cells. The reason the water didnÃ¢â¬â¢t move as freely through the cells is due to the small amount of solute. This is an example of hypertonic, or greater osmotic pressure. This solution has a higher concentration of solute than the hypotonic solution. C In solution C the salt/ solute is very present. The celery became very flimsy after 4 hours. Even less water moving into cells. The celery became Ã¢â¬Å"veryÃ¢â¬ flexible and very flimsy. The water was not moving through the cells even at a higher rate. This solution is a full example of osmosis. In osmosis the solute is of greater concentration of the solute. The diffusion of pure solvent across a membrane in response to a concentration gradient,
Thursday, January 9, 2020
The Leaked Secret to English Essay Outline Discovered English Essay Outline Secrets In the USA, there's a good deal of controversy surrounding the minimal legal drinking age of 21. Low-income areas can entice little businesses as a result of decrease cost of operation, and can grow economically as a consequence of the new jobs, improving the standard of life of the region. It's only feasible to create a synopsis in case you've got familiarity with the area. If you take a close look at research paper outline examples, you will observe we have several tactics to present the most important body. Lies You've Been Told About English Essay Outline A debate can be composed by purdue on-line essays online resume authors. What country would you like to reside in essay. You can rely on the ideal essay help online. Once you get your completed essay, make certain to tell all your friends what a wonderful service it is and what's the perfect place to get cheap essays. Nowadays it's quite difficult to locate a trustworthy essay writing service. There are numerous essay writing services that think they're the very best, and therefore don't be cheated and check the genuine collection of the very best. Get the Scoop on English Essay Outline Before You're Too Late You might also see speech outline. A consistent structure ought to be used in the key headings and the subheadings. Let's look at an excellent case of an outline. It is an impossible task to compose a persuasive research paper without having and very clear outline. The significance of the outline in the research paper is clear. An outline will help to learn the way a student will build other critical sections like Literature Review. By studying various outline samples, you're guaranteed to come up with the ideal research paper outline in virtually no time. Whether you do a very simple research or a complicated one for a larger project, a research outline can help you receive the best outcomes. Finding out how to compose a thorough outline for a research paper is a more complicated course of action. An outline is intended to help you set a structure for a paper you are likely to write. A comprehensive outline is essential for writing a very good research paper. But What About English Essay Outline? It is possible to also Speech Outline Template. A research outline template is readily gettable on the web. Though it might look difficult, as soon as you become familiarized with the rules and format, it is going to become easier. The perfect way to get a comprehension of the APA outline format is to have a look at examples. Completing an MLA outline will make sure your research paper format is accurate. APA format is usually utilized in the social sciences. The Hidden Gem of English Essay Outline There are more than a few reasons, but generally, it could possibly be valuable to make an outline if you want to demonstrate the hierarchical relationship or logical ordering of information. It's possible that you use quotes or paraphrase regions of the text to be able to add evidence. In the event of a lengthier project, it's challenging to imagine a successful writing process with no obstacles in the event the outline is missing. Additionally, among the crucial purposes of an outline is to clearly convey the link between the thesis and every one of the topic sentences. A graduate pa per outline isn't an exception, it must be done following the typical rules known to a lot of students but the primary difference could be in the content that it is going to carry. Example, on types of work that's a written you'll become 1 mistake students to compose a specialist. Every student demands help with homework from time to time. By time to time, even the best students realize it's problematic as the write-up must perhaps not comprise information regarding the topic matter but in addition significant research of selected issues to compose an article that's superb. Thus a sample might enhance the general performance and presentation of the paper which will assist them in future too. In order to start outlining the research paper, determine why you're researching the subject. For research papers, an outline may assist you in keeping an eye on considerable amounts of information. A well-made outline is crucial in locating considerable info and keeping track of conside rable amounts of information from a research paper. Who Else Wants to Learn About English Essay Outline? If you're thinking that you require someone to compose my essay at the moment, you can merely rely on our honest reviews. Employing an outline template can assist the student organize the paper and eliminate the ideas that aren't pertinent to the function of the essay. A systematic approach will definitely assist you to produce a brilliant research paper. The most frequently encountered paper writing service that the majority of our clients require is essay writing.
Wednesday, January 1, 2020
In semanticsÃ and pragmatics, entailment is the principle that under certain conditions the truth of one statement ensures the truth of a second statement. Also called strict implication,Ã logical consequence, and semantic consequence. The two types of entailment that are the most frequent in language, saysÃ Daniel Vanderveken, are truth conditional and illocutionary entailments. For example, he says, the performative sentence I beg you to help me illocutionary entails the imperative sentence Please, help me! and truth conditionally entails the declarative sentence You can help me (Meaning and Speech Acts: Principles of Language Use, 1990). Commentary [O]ne statement entails another when the second is a logically necessary consequence of the first, as Alan lives in Toronto entails Alan lives in Canada. Note that the relationship of entailment, unlike that of paraphrase, is one-way: it is not the case that Alan lives in Canada entails Alan lives in Toronto. (Laurel J. Brinton, The Structure of Modern English: A Linguistic Introduction. John Benjamins, 2000) [M]any, if not all, assertive sentences (statements, propositions) of a language allow for inferences solely on the basis of their meanings. For example, when I say Ben has been murdered, then anyone who has understood this utterance and accepts its truth will also accept the truth of the statement Ben is dead. (Pieter A. M. Seuren, Western Linguistics: An Historical Introduction. Wiley-Blackwell, 1998) Entailment Relations An entailment can be thought of as a relationship between one sentence or set of sentences, the entailing expressions, and another sentence, what is entailed... We can find countless examples where entailment relations hold between sentences and countless where they do not. The English sentence (14) is normally interpreted so that it entails the sentences in (15) but does not entail those in (16). (14) Lee kissed Kim passionately. (15)a. Lee kissed Kim.b. Kim was kissed by Lee.c. Kim was kissed.d. Lee touched Kim with her lips. (16)a. Lee married Kim.b. Kim kissed Lee.c. Lee kissed Kim many times.d. Lee did not kiss Kim. (Gennaro Chierchia and Sally McConnell-Ginet, Meaning and Grammar: An Introduction to Semantics. MIT Press, 2000) The Challenge of Determining Meaning Semantic entailment isÃ the task of determining, for example, that the sentence: Wal-Mart defended itself in court today against claims that its female employees were kept out of jobs in management because they are women entails that Wal-Mart was sued for sexual discrimination. Determining whether the meaning of a given text snippet entails that of another or whether they have the same meaning is a fundamental problem in natural language understanding that requires the ability to extract over the inherent syntactic and semantic variability in natural language. This challenge is at the heart of many high-level natural language processing tasks including Question Answering, Information Retrieval and Extraction, Machine Translation, and others that attempt to reason about and capture the meaning of linguistic expressions.Research in natural language processing in the last few years has concentrated on developing resources that provide multiple levels of syntactic and semantic analysis, resolve context sensitive ambiguities, and identify relational structures and abstractions.... (Rodrigo de Salvo Braz et al., An Inference Model for Semantic Entailment in Natural Languages.Ã Machine Learning Challenges: Evaluating Predictive Uncertainty, Visual Object Classif ication and Recognizing Textual Entailment, ed. byÃ Joaquin QuiÃ ±oneroÃ Candela et al. Springer, 2006)
Tuesday, December 24, 2019
The extraction of factors helps to determine the loading of factors. The factor loading matrix is shown below and is estimated with two common factors. The first column of the matrix depicts the first unrotated factor and it can be analysed that the first factor puts maximum and approximately equal weights to the first, second and fifth variable. And, it puts the minimum weight to the third variable, electricity. On the other hand, the second unrotated factor places the least weights to the first and second variable, while putting the highest weight to the third variable. Factor Loadings = Scatter plot of Unrotated Factor Scores The Figure. 15 shows the scatter plot of Score2 vs. Score1. It is clear that the 15th observation has theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Selecting an appropriate rotation is difficult task. Hence, it is preferable to perform both rotations on the factors. Varimax rotation technique results in high loading of each variable on a few number of factors, ideally on one factor and hence resulting in better factor analysis. The Figure. 18 shows the biplot of loadings of varimax rotated factors. It can be seen that in order to bring the loadings close to zero or one, varimax has rotated the axes. The four variables are close to first factor axis. While, the third variable lies approximately on second factor axis. Hence, the results of varimax rotation are satisfactory because most of the variables are near to the factor axis. Figure. 17 Promax rotation can be used incase we are not able to obtain the satisfactory and simple set of factors with an orthogonal rotation. The promax rotation allows the factor axes to have an oblique angle between them. The Figure. 19 shown belows depicts the promax rotation. It can be seen that the variables 1, 2 and 5 are close to the first factor axes and third variable is close to the second factor axis. The data is better accomodated in an oblique rotation. The two latent factors can describe variability of buildings and agriculture, which are having high impact on greenhouse gas emissions. Figure. 18 To understand how the rotated and unrotated solutions are related to eachShow MoreRelatedThe Alberta Tar Sands: Factors Affecting Extraction and Production of Fossil Fuels1290 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEarths biggest reserves of fossil fuels, the extraction of these resources is known to cause a variety of social and ecological problems. The extraction process itself is inefficient and the pipeline that has been proposed is subject to many environmental risks. Portions of the pipeline have already been approved and the construction of the pipeline is already begun in some areas. This paper will look at some of the factors associated with tar sands extraction and production of fossil fuels. 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Monday, December 16, 2019
Veterans and PTSD Toni L. Enemy Hunter Psychiatric Rehabilitation/REHA 425 Professor McDermott October 29, 2011 Abstract The United States is seeing an increasing number of Veterans coming back from Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) being diagnosed with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). We will write a custom essay sample on Veterans and Ptsd or any similar topic only for you Order Now PTSD is affecting the lives of men and women, their family and those closest to them. The goal of this paper is to give some general information for women and their families experiencing PTSD. It will give symptoms and treatment options available to women veterans. Women Vets and PTSD According to the 2009 and 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), nearly 600,000 veterans aged 18 or older experienced a co-occurring substance use disorder and mental illness in the past 12 months. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is now becoming more prevalent with men and women in the military. How can the families of the veteran better understand what to expect and how to deal with their loved ones suffering from PTSD? Definition According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; APA, 2000) the diagnostic criteria for PTSD include a history of exposure to a traumatic event meeting two criteria and symptoms from each of three symptom clusters: intrusive recollections, avoidant/numbing symptoms, and hyper-arousal symptoms (Appendix 2). Challenges The British Medical Journal reported that veterans do not experience trauma or disabling symptoms until they return from the war (Gabriel Neal, 2002). Friedman said PTSD symptoms appear when they return home trying to readjust to civilian life. When a person is on active duty in the military, if one does not have a physical injury then psychological symptoms are seen as a weakness and being a coward (Friedman, 2004). Those that did seek help found it difficult to be diagnosed because they were not exposed to direct combat (i. e. hostile fire, returning fire, or seeing others injured). The veterans that do have PTSD from military trauma are from non-combative events such as sexual trauma. They may feel alone and worry about their families. PTDS is comorbid with traumatic brain injuries and other psychiatric disorders such as depression, social phobia, panic disorder, substance abuse, and mood and anxiety disorders (Feczer, 2009). [W]e deny that war changes its participants forever- Ã¢â¬ ¦America claims innocence and goodness as fundamental traits. We believe that our young men and women should be able to go to war, get the job done, and return home blameless and well. (Tick, 2005) Intervention The Readjustment Counseling Service is available for veterans who served in war zones, Vietnam Era Veterans, veterans that experienced sexual trauma while in the military, and for family members that have lost loved ones while on duty. At a Veteran Center, the services that are provided are: individual counseling, group counseling, marital and family counseling, addiction counseling, benefits assistance and referral, employment referral and counseling, community education, liaison with VA facilities, referral to community agencies, contracts with area counselors and Mobile Vet Center Outreach. The client first has to go through assessments to figure out the best therapeutic approach. They need to be screened for victimization, suicidal potential, addictive behaviors, differential diagnosis, comorbidity, and family assessment (Meichenbaum, 1995). Medications, along with therapy, have been the most helpful types of treatment for PTSD. The medications used are antidepressant medications, anti-anxiety medications, mood stabilizing medications, and other medications to ease nightmares, irritability, sleeplessness, depression, and anxiety (Feczer, 2009). It is important when interviewing the client to find out their childhood history. Many times trauma during childhood will not come out until later in life and it can be the underlying issue to their problems (Feczer, 2009). Therapy Modalities PET After a traumatic event, many individuals experience distress and signs of PTSD. The veteran may experience suffering when dealing with the recollections related to the trauma. This type of therapy helps by approaching those thoughts, feelings, and events that the client has been avoiding because of the stress they cause. By repeated exposure to the emotions it helps the veteran reduce the power thoughts have over the client. However, during the assessment, it is important to discuss with the veteran the main event(s) that causes the stress. By doing this at a comfortable pace, the exposure to that trauma can be dealt with accordingly (Creamer amp; Forbes, 2004). The first part of the therapy is education. The counselor will explain the treatment, the common trauma reactions and symptoms of PTSD. PET helps the veteran understand what the goals are for the treatment and what to expect for the duration of the upcoming sessions. Teaching methods of breathing techniques will help the veteran to relax. Breathing changes when a person becomes anxious or fearful. This is a short-term technique to assist in managing sudden distress. The third aspect of PET is in vivo exposure where the client has exposure to real world situations or events that may be anxiety-producing. This is safely done by approaching the situation that has been avoided because of the stress it causes. PET uses imaginal exposure where the veteran talks through the trauma(s) with the counselor. By talking, it helps the client to gain control over the traumatic events and realize that he or she does not have to be afraid of his or her memories. The overall goal is to work through the events from least to most traumatic events and what is comfortable for the client. This type of therapy is usually eight to fifteen sessions that last about ninety minutes (Resick, Nishith, Weaver, Astin,amp; Feuer, 2002). CPT Many times those with PTSD have problems dealing with their thoughts and memories of the trauma they have been though. They may get Ã¢â¬Å"stuckÃ¢â¬ in their thoughts and have a hard time making sense of what has happened or is happening to them. CPT helps in giving clients a new way of dealing with their thoughts and to gain an understanding of the events that haunt them. There are four parts to CPT: learning about PTSD symptoms, becoming aware of thoughts and feelings, learning skills and understanding changes in beliefs. CPT requires educating the client about PTSD and what to expect from the disorder. The veterans can ask questions and find out how the skills are going to help them. In this modality, the client needs to become aware of their thoughts and feelings. When bad things happen we want to know why they happen. Clients can get stuck in their thought process and not be able to let it go. However, with CPT a person learns to pay attention to these thoughts that the trauma has caused and discuss how they make one feel. Then he or she can take a step back and see how it affects the person now. This will hopefully help the veteran think of the trauma in a different way. This can be done by writing about it or talking to the counselor. Next, the veterans need to begin learning the skills to help challenge their thoughts and question them as well. This is done by doing worksheets (appendix 1). These worksheets will help veterans decide the way they want to think and feel about their traumatic situations. These skills will eventually help in dealing with every day issues. Finally, there is trying to understand the changes in beliefs. There are common changes that happen after going through a trauma. There are going to be changes in the way a person thinks about safety, trust, control, self-esteem, other people and relationships. By talking about these beliefs, hopefully they can find a balance with the beliefs before and after the trauma. The approximate time for this type of therapy is twelve sessions. EMDR The final type of therapy is Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing or EMDR. Clients that are involved in EMDR use imaginal exposure of their trauma and at the same time the counselor uses their index finger for them to follow back and forth. EMDR therapy seems to directly affect the brain by unlocking the traumatic memories, allowing clients to resolve them. Veterans work through the upsetting memory, beliefs, feelings, sensations until they are able to think about the event without reliving it. The memory is still there, but not as upsetting. It is like detaching oneself and watching a movie but relieving the trauma at the same time (Barton, Smith, Corcoran, 2011). Case Management, Employment and Vocational Rehabilitation According to the Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Program that Congress prepared, case managers work closely with Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors (VRC) to create a rehabilitation plan. This plan consists of evaluation and planning for the future goals of the veteran. The veteran is evaluated to see if he or she is capable of independent living or will need rehabilitation services. The VRC is responsible to see that referrals for medical, eye care and dental are taken care of for the client. The vocational-education counselor will be able to assist the veteran in acquiring education, training, equipment, and financial aid if the client needs to develop new skills for employment. The President of the United States is also giving great tax breaks to employees for hiring veterans. The Counselor and Support Systems The downfall to helping veterans with PTSD is that there are not many counselors have the experience with this type of client. Counselors in this field are few, especially in the rural and underserved geographic areas. The VA resources are overwhelmed with clients so there is a backlog, which creates frustration with veterans. There are many that have contemplated or have committed suicide because they did not receive the help they needed. According to the National Center for PTSD, some may have had past mental health issues and may not have good support systems in addition to what was mentioned earlier. So that is why it is important to have a good support system and education is essential for the families when the veteran returns home. They will more than likely not be the same person as they were before they were deployed. Conclusion Veterans do so much for the United States citizens and we need to be thankful for the job they do for our freedom. The veterans put their lives in danger so we can live the life as Americans. Veterans deserve the respect and assistance when they return home to us. So it is my opinion that we do our best to ensure they can become productive citizens once again. I would like to be part of that team to assist in helping veterans adjust back into civilian life. I would like to see more citizens do the same by helping the veterans any way possible. Where would the United States be if we did not have such a great military team? References American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Revised 4th ed. ). Washington, DC: Author. Feczer, D. A. (2009). Forever changed: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in female military veterans, A Case Report. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. Friedman, M. (2004). Acknowledging the psychiatric cost of war. New England Journal of Medicine, pp 351, 75-77. Gabriel, R. A. (2002). Post-traumatic stress disorder or somatic dysfunction after military conflict may hide posttraumatic disorder. British Medical Journal, pp 324, 340-342. Tick, E. (2005). War and the soul: Healing our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s veterans from post-traumatic stress disorder. Wheaton, IL: Quest Books. Masson, N. (2010). Mindful Cognitive Processing Worksheet. Retrieved from http://drnataliemasson. com/images/Mindful%20Cognitive%20Processing%20Worksheet. pdf Creamer, M. , Forbes D. (2004). Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations, Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, (Vol. 41, pp. 388-398). Resick, P. , Nishith, P. , Weaver, T. , Astin, M. , Feuer, C. 2002). A comparison of cognitive-processing therapy with prolonged exposure and a waiting condition for the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in female rape victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, (Vol. 70, pp. 867-879). Bartson, S. , Smith. , M. , Corcoran, C. (2011). Help Guide. EMDR Therapy. Retrieved from http://www. helpguide. org/mental/pdf/emdr. pdf Meichenbaum, D. (19 95). A clinical handbook/practical therapist manual for assessing and treating adults with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) book. Florida: Institute Press. Appendix 1 Mindful Cognitive Processing Worksheet 1. Describe situation briefly 2. List emotions (single words) and rate the intensity (0-100%) 3. List automatic thoughts. Circle Ã¢â¬Å"hot thoughtÃ¢â¬ . (For deeper work, identify the Ã¢â¬Å"core belief. Ã¢â¬ ) 4. Observe breathing and body sensations. Describe these briefly. 5. Practice acceptance and validation. List thoughts that promote acceptance, non-judgment, validation. Take a few moments to practice breathing in an attitude of allowing things to be as they are without judging or trying to change/fix things. 6. List objective evidence that supports your automatic thoughts. . List objective evidence that counters your automatic thoughts. 8. Identify any distortions involved in your automatic thoughts. 9. Consider a more balanced thought. 10. Describe the outcome. List emotions, rate intensity. List any other reactions, observations. BonusÃ¢â¬ ¦ 11. Identify any core beliefs that could use revisingÃ¢â¬ ¦. and a more adaptive belief. 12. Consider behavioral experiments to disprove the core beliefs and support a new belief. Summary of some common cognitive distortions: 1. Probability overestimations Ã¢â¬â overestimating the likelihood of a negative event 2. Mind reading Ã¢â¬â assuming what others will think about you Appendix 1 Cont. 3. Personalization Ã¢â¬â taking too much responsibility for a negative situation 4. Should statements Ã¢â¬â incorrect/exaggerated statements about how things should be 5. Catastrophic thinking Ã¢â¬â assuming that a negative event would be catastrophic 6. All-or-nothing thinking (Black ; White Thinking) 7. Selective attention and memory Ã¢â¬âattend to negative information, discount positive 8. Overgeneralization Ã¢â¬â a single event is taken as a sign of a global pattern 9. Fortune telling Ã¢â¬â predicting the future with absolute certainty 10. Negative core beliefs Ã¢â¬â negative assumptions about oneself. Taking an event and turning it into a core characteristic. (Ã¢â¬Å"I made a mistakeÃ¢â¬ vs. Ã¢â¬Å"I am a loserÃ¢â¬ ) 11. Emotional reasoning Ã¢â¬â believing that if you feel as if something is true, that makes it true (Masson, 2010) Appendix 2 DSM-IV-TR criteria for PTSD In 2000, the American Psychiatric Association revised the PTSD diagnostic criteria in the fourth edition of its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) (1). The diagnostic criteria (A-F) are specified below. Diagnostic criteria for PTSD include a history of exposure to a traumatic event meeting two criteria and symptoms from each of three symptom clusters: intrusive recollections, avoidant/numbing symptoms, and hyper-arousal symptoms. A fifth criterion concerns duration of symptoms and a sixth assesses functioning. Criterion A: stressor The person has been exposed to a traumatic event in which both of the following have been present: 1. The person has experienced, witnessed, or been confronted with an event or events that involve actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of oneself or others. . The personÃ¢â¬â¢s response involved intense fear, helplessness, or horror. Note: in children, it may be expressed instead by disorganized or agitated behavior. Criterion B: intrusive recollection The traumatic event is persistently re-experienced in at least one of the following ways: 1. Recurrent and intrusive distressing recollections of the event, inc luding images, thoughts, or perceptions. Note: in young children, repetitive play may occur in which themes or aspects of the trauma are expressed. 2. Recurrent distressing dreams of the event. Note: in children, there may be frightening dreams without recognizable content 3. Acting or feeling as if the traumatic event were recurring (includes a sense of reliving the experience, illusions, hallucinations, and dissociative flashback episodes, including those that occur upon awakening or when intoxicated). Note: in children, trauma-specific reenactment may occur. 4. Intense psychological distress at exposure to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event. 5. Physiologic reactivity upon exposure to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event Criterion C: avoidant/numbing Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and numbing of general responsiveness (not present before the trauma), as indicated by at least three of the following: 1. Efforts to avoid thoughts, feelings, or conversations associated with the trauma 2. Efforts to avoid activities, places, or people that arouse recollections of the trauma 3. Inability to recall an important aspect of the trauma 4. Markedly diminished interest or participation in significant activities 5. Feeling of detachment or estrangement from others 6. Restricted range of affect (e. g. , unable to have loving feelings) 7. Sense of foreshortened future (e. g. , does not expect to have a career, marriage, children, or a normal life span) Criterion D: hyper-arousal Persistent symptoms of increasing arousal (not present before the trauma), indicated by at least two of the following: 1. Difficulty falling or staying asleep 2. Irritability or outbursts of anger 3. Difficulty concentrating 4. Hyper-vigilance 5. Exaggerated startle response Criterion E: duration Duration of the disturbance (symptoms in B, C, and D) is more than one month. Criterion F: functional significance The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Specify if: Acute: if duration of symptoms is less than three months Chronic: if duration of symptoms is three months or more Specify if: With or without delay onset: Onset of symptoms at least six months after the stressor (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) How to cite Veterans and Ptsd, Papers
Sunday, December 8, 2019
Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËDeath of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬â¢ (1949) opens with an extensive description of the Loman house. Miller uses extremely precise and detailed stage directions, including prop placement, sound and lighting, giving heavy significance to each of these elements and painting an unchangeable picture to ensure that it is preserved in every interpretation of his work. Throughout the opening stage directions of Act 1, despite the structure and tone being very factual, composed of short, clear sentences, Miller hints at underlying themes and messages through a range of stylistic devices, preparing the audience for the play, and setting the scene. As the play is set in Brooklyn, New York some years after the great depression, many references are made already at this early stage to idealism and the American dream; the desperate and yearning vision of many Americans at that time of a better life. This permeating theme becomes apparent formerly even to the introduction of the characters, as the mere scenery and props act as symbolic elements, which reflect this motif. We will write a custom essay sample on Analysis of Death of a Salesman opening stage directions or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Miller however subliminally makes it evident that this dream is purely an illusion, through emblematic phrases in his stage directions such as Ã¢â¬Ërising out of realityÃ¢â¬â¢ and physical representations, for instance the broken boundaries where Ã¢â¬Ëcharacters enter or leave a room by stepping through a wall onto the forestageÃ¢â¬â¢ which create an aura of delusion. The first stage directions include a melody played on a flute, Ã¢â¬Ëtelling of grass and trees and the horizonÃ¢â¬â¢. This natural imagery encompassing three physical elements accompanied by the soft and harmonious sound, sets a serene tone which is then highly juxtaposed with the following depiction of the house and itÃ¢â¬â¢s neighborhood, featured with darkness and hostility. This heavy contrast may be symbolic of the conflict between the dreams to which the individual aspires and the actual harshness of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s reality. The description of the surrounding cluster of apartment blocks seems almost to have a greater prominence than the house itself, as this is the first thing the audience Ã¢â¬Ëbecomes aware ofÃ¢â¬â¢. The tall and Ã¢â¬ËangularÃ¢â¬â¢ silhouette of Manhattan that lies in the backdrop has expressionistic features and surrounds the Loman house in a way that suggests some metaphorical form of oppression or confinement. The Ã¢â¬Ëglow of orangeÃ¢â¬â¢ that falls upon the Ã¢â¬Ëfragile-seemingÃ¢â¬â¢ house is personified as Ã¢â¬ËangryÃ¢â¬â¢, perhaps reflecting the hostile times in which the play is set. This enclosing and intimidating hostility is in part what makes the home appear so fragile, a fragility that may represent weakness in family bonds or equally, weakness in he who represents the house, condemning him immediately to the role of a tragic protagonist. Willy clings to his dreams just as Ã¢â¬Ëan air of the dream clings to the placeÃ¢â¬â¢. This idea becomes present again in the description of LindaÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings towards her husband and his traits. Ã¢â¬Ëhis massive dreamsÃ¢â¬â¢ are the source of his tragic nature, dreams that he shares with the rest of society, but that for him become an unhealthy obsession. Willy is cursed with the incessant desire to pursue his dreams Ã¢â¬Ëto their endÃ¢â¬â¢ and these words forebode a fate that unfolds as a result of this fixation. Overall the opening of this play provides the audience with a sense of the themes that will permeate throughout, by cleverly using stage schemes and elements that insinuate profounder significance of what is to come. The audience is hereby prepared for the play and begins to form judgments and predictions shaped around this carefully strategized scenery.
Saturday, November 30, 2019
Before discussing options for computer addiction treatment, one point regarding addiction to the computer needs to be made : Computer addiction is not an official psychiatric diagnosis. Despite a growing movement to have obsessive computer and internet use included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), so far this has not happened. In relative terms when disadvantages of computer addiction compared to other addictions such as alcoholism and drug addiction, computer addiction is a very new phenomenon. Most of the disorders included in the DSM have been extensively researched and treated in some form for at least fifty years Ã¢â¬â and many such as depression have been studied for well over one hundred years. In contrast, the computer itself has only been widely available for twenty or so years. Computer addiction is a relatively new term used to describe a dependency on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s computer. Computer addiction is not limited to personal computers (PCs). We will write a custom essay sample on What Are the Disadvantages of Computer Addiction? or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It covers video games and the Internet and has already been given a label by psychologists, namely Internet addiction disorder (IAD). In short, excessive internet use has not been around long enough or sufficiently studied to warrant official disorder status. Still, is there any doubt that some people spend far too much time online and that this can significantly interfere with their functioning in the Ã¢â¬Å"real worldÃ¢â¬ ? Computer addiction is a loosely used term for the excessive use of computers to the extent that it interferes with daily life. Excessive use may explain problems in social interaction, mood, personality, work ethic, relationships, thought processes, or sleep deprivation. Whether we call this computer addiction, internet addition, or something is largely irrelevant. Online habits that far exceed what most people would consider Ã¢â¬Å"healthyÃ¢â¬ . For example ten-plus hours per day, can have serious consequences for the addict. In my opinion, computer addiction, like any addiction, can creep up on a person without one being aware of it. There are a lot of disadvantages of computer addiction. The newly diagnosed computer addiction has gained much press attention recently, as children have also been affected. Talk shows are full of people whose relationships have been torn apart by one partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s computer addiction. Spending hours chatting online, surfing the web or playing computer games can cause relationships to deteriorate as other parts of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life are neglected. A recent research study showed that some children suffer from computer rage when they are forbidden to play computer games. The results are temper tantrums and behavioral traits similar to those of an addict going cold turkey. So how exactly is computer addiction defined? When does a hobby become an addiction? As with most other dependencies, specific questions can be asked to assess whether or not someone may suffer from computer addiction. These questions include assessing how much time is spent on the PC or playing video games, sometimes relative to how much time is spent interacting with real people. Another way to assess computer addiction is to assess oneÃ¢â¬â¢s quality of life before and after the computer arrived. Many people have lost jobs due to their computer addiction. Constantly logging onto the Internet at work has caused many people to be dismissed, often after repeated warnings were issued. Money is another factor. Some people have gone into debt and lost great amounts of money using online services and chatrooms. Computer addiction is also sometimes linked to computer gambling. For some people, gambling is reliant on the computer. They cannot have one without the other. Not only do such people spend countless hours playing online poker, but they often lose thousands of dollars while playing. Computer addiction can have a number of physical, social, and psychological effects on a person and it is to be taken as seriously as any other addiction that a person is battling. One common physical effect computer addiction can have on a person are back problems. Sitting for so long can take a toll on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s muscles and can result in poor posture. Poor posture can result in chronic back problems that require the services of a chiropractor. Tips on solving disadvantages of computer addiction As with any addiction, steps can be taken to treat computer addiction. Limiting the amount of time spent on the computer or playing video games is a simple step. If your computer is on all the time at home, switch it off. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t leave the computer near at hand. In order to prevent things from getting out of control, reassure that you understands that if you buy a computer, you will have to respect some rules regarding its usage. The first and most important rule is establish a schedule for using the computer. Develop a new passion that has nothing to do with computers. The disadvantages of computer addiction in mainly caused by a lack of activities or boredom. Get out of the house, play with friends or encourage to invite your colleagues at home. The more friends you has, the better. The important thing for your child is to interact more with the real world than with the virtual one. More and more people are spending time in cyberspace in a virtual world of their own making. If not treated, this condition can lead to diminished social skills and deterioration in the addictÃ¢â¬â¢s quality of life. Take care, the disadvantages of computer addiction is said to be on the increase.