Saturday, May 23, 2020

Article Review The Black Death - 962 Words

Article Review The Bubonic Plague, or more commonly referred to as the Black Death is something that has stumped scholars and students alike for centuries since its passing. There have been several articles written about, and discussed over the past few years concerning different angles of approach during the discussion of the Black Death. One of the biggest, and most reputable scholarly journals that has published a broad spectrum over many things concerning things such as the Black Death is, in fact, The Journal of Psychohistory. Jerrold Atlas wrote a particularly interesting article over the Black Death discussing many viewpoints, which encompass and capture a plethora of ideals; and probe at some very sensitive viewpoints. These areas that Atlas covers are areas that other scholars would not want to go into depth discussing, or researching; which in all make this a very interesting and informative article. Right off the bat, Atlas goes into a very profound analysis by stating thi s quote, â€Å" Might all of the changes brought by the plagues have profoundly reshaped the European world and set in motion a sense of having succeeded too well and needing some cleansing.† With this statement Mr. Atlas is acknowledging the presumptive status that the plagues that drove Europe’s population down by a considerable amount, which led to the reformation and later to the renaissance. Not to say that was Atlas’ main thesis, but a buzzing detail that refused to be ignored and flauntedShow MoreRelatedInfant Mortality And Birth Mortality1394 Words   |  6 PagesMcKenzie and Pinger define infant mortality as death prior to 1 year of age. It is expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 live births. Leading causes of infant mortality are: congenital malformation, preterm/low birth weight, complications during pregnancy and accidents. In the last 100 years there have been decreases in infant mortality due to economic growth, sanitation improvement, de veloped medical care and enhanced nutrition. (McKenzie Pinger, 2017). Infant mortality rates vary amidRead More`` Exquisite Corpse `` By Ashraf Rushdy951 Words   |  4 PagesTransition published a journal article in 1999, Issue 83 (Volume 9, Number 3) â€Å"Exquisite corpse†, written by Ashraf Rushdy. This article chronicled numerous hate crimes executed against African Americans by Caucasians as far back as 1933. The Transition article, a journal dedicated to the advancement of the African American community, written by Rushdy, look to reduce the propensity and likelihood of their constituents being lynched by the white community. It is Rushdy’s hypothesis that prominentlyRead MoreJust Kill Em? Essay1431 Words   |  6 PagesJust Kill ‘Em? The United States has a long history with the death penalty. The â€Å"first recorded execution was in Jamestown in 1608† (â€Å"Death Penalty in America† 259). Since then, thirty five states have continued to use the death penalty. Now it can be considered a normal punishment and many people feel strongly about it, but maybe we should forget what we have done in the past and take a second look. The death penalty should not be used in the United States because it is too expensive, affectsRead MoreThe Death Penalty : Costly, Counterproductive, And Corrupting1678 Words   |  7 PagesBright, Stephen B.: The death penalty as the answer to crime: costly, counterproductive and corrupting; 35 Santa Clara Law Review 1211 (1995) Summary paragraph: In Stephen Bright’s article, â€Å"The Death Penalty as the Answer to Crime: Costly, Counterproductive, and Corrupting† Bright asserts that capital punishment does not work because it is racially biased, the quality of the lawyers and attorneys supplied by the state to poor defendants is unfair, and that the law system currently in place doesRead MoreShould The Government Allow All Citizens? Buy, And Carry Firearms?1448 Words   |  6 PagesNational Review, a reliable organization. National Review in a non profitable organization, that focuses on distributing information and news. The text was first published on December 21, 2015. The information is quite current because this article was published three months ago. The publishing date relates to the history of the topic because technology is always evolving and advancing, hence, the most current articles are the most reliable. The author has the qualifications to write this article becauseRead MoreBlack Hawk Down : Pr oject 4 Essay1654 Words   |  7 PagesBlack Hawk Down: Project 4 Essay Tired, hungry, and largely outnumbered- the U.S. Rangers and The Delta troops found themselves in the midst of one of the deadliest warzones. President George Bush ordered the marines into Somalia, October 1992. However, no one expected it to turn out as one of the most horrific battles in history since the Vietnam War. President Bush originally ordered them to set out to help end hunger problems and food shortages in the poorer areas of Somalia, Little did heRead MoreThe Black Plague, By Walter Wyman Essay1557 Words   |  7 Pagesperiod in history. The period that we will look further into will be Medieval Europe. I found an academic article that explores deeper into that period, especially the Black plague. Assembling three primary sources of the black plague, each has a different perspective of what was portrayed in the academic article. Walter Wyman review’s The North American Review which argues where the Black Plague also known as the Bubonic Plague originated from. Wyman brings up that the plague was found in areasRead MoreThe Pros and Cons of the Death Penalty Essay examples1210 Words   |  5 PagesIn the world we as people live in violence. Violence has gotten so out of control that it has affected everyone. The one thing about violence is that it also leads to crimes. And crimes leads to some people being imprisoned, while others are put on death row. But if crimes are crimes, what makes them minor or major? Who decides if they are minor or major? Nowadays minor and major crimes are being pushed together. For example, someone gets shot and the shooter gets 5 years in prison. But if someoneRead MoreTime Capsule Unearthed: the 1960s Revisited Essay1381 Words   |  6 PagesCapsule Unearthed: The 1960s Revisited Michelle Houle Kaplan University SS310 - Sociology Final Project Time Capsule Unearthed: The 1960s Revisited A poster with a large peace symbol on it (Rigby, A. (1998). A peace symbols origins. Peace Review, 10(3), 475., ) The peace symbol was a very prominent part of the 1960’s since the era was filled with remembrance of the past wars merging with the new rawness of the Vietnam War. The symbol was designed in 1958 by Gerald Holtom, . When the warRead MoreThe Impact of James Baldwins Writing on the Civil Rights Movement1323 Words   |  5 PagesJames Baldwin is looked upon by many as the first of the great Black writers to have had a significant impact on the Civil Rights movement. James Baldwin work was very important to the civil rights movement and he was influenced by the civil rights movement. Born in 1924, Baldwin moved to Paris, France in his early twenties and it was from there that he did most of his important writing (Boyd). Baldwin began his writing career as a novelist and his personal goal was always to attain a status as a

Monday, May 11, 2020

Marie Sklodowska Curie - 1867 to 1934

Marie Curie is best known for discovering radium, yet she achieved many more accomplishments. Here is a brief biography of her claim to fame. Born November 7, 1867Warsaw, Poland Died July 4, 1934Sancellemoz, France Claim to Fame Radioactivity Research Notable Awards Nobel Prize in Physics (1903) [together with Henri Becquerel and her husband, Pierre Curie]Davy Medal (1903)Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1911) Summary of Accomplishments Marie Curie pioneered radioactivity research, She was the first two-time Nobel laureate and the only person to win the award in two different sciences (Linus Pauling won Chemistry and Peace). She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize. Marie Curie was the first female professor at the Sorbonne. More About Maria Sklodowska-Curie or Marie Curie Maria Sklodowska was the daughter of Polish schoolteachers. She took work as a teacher after her father lost his savings through a bad investment. She also participated in the nationalist â€Å"free university,† in which she read in Polish to women workers. She worked as a governess in Poland to support her older sister in Paris and eventually joined them there. She met and married Pierre Curie while she was studying science at the Sorbonne. They studied radioactive materials, particularly the ore pitchblende. On December 26, 1898, the Curies announced the existence of an unknown radioactive substance found in pitchblende that was more radioactive than uranium. Over the course of several years, Marie and Pierre processed tons of pitchblende, progressively concentrating the radioactive substances and eventually isolating the chloride salts (radium chloride was isolated on April 20, 1902). They discovered two new chemical elements. Polonium was named for Curies native country, Poland, and radium was named for its intense radioactivity. In 1903, Pierre Curie, Marie Curie, and Henri Becquerel were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel. This made Curie the first woman to be awarded a Nobel Prize. In 1911 Marie Curie was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element. The Curies did not patent the radium isolation process, choosing to let the scientific community freely continue research. Marie Curie died from aplastic anemia, almost certainly from unshielded exposure to hard radiation. Sources Curie, Eve (2001). Madame Curie: A Biography. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81038-1.Pasachoff, Naomi (1996). Marie Curie and the Science of Radioactivity. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-509214-1.Reid, Robert William (1974). Marie Curie. New American Library. ISBN 978-0-00-211539-1.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Back to School Free Essays

Learning, they say, is a continuous process. Whether one is in school, on vacation, in church, in a party or in the solitude of silence, learning takes place as long as an individual is responsive to the stimulus which kindles learning. Going back to school shall, however, always be an exhilarating experience for individuals like me who value college schooling as a sacred venture to gain steady foothold for a good future. We will write a custom essay sample on Back to School or any similar topic only for you Order Now This paper briefly describes my learning profile, my perceived strengths which will tide me over a college course, the challenges that I need to hurdle to make the most out of my tertiary education and my special formula towards a successful college life. My Learning Profile From my previous readings, I have reason to believe that I am primarily an auditory learner. I learn best by listening to lectures, rather than by reading lecture hand-outs. Believe it or not, easy listening music usually complements my studying environment. I would like to believe that I am an extrovert. If I may expound, being an extrovert made me enjoy listening to lectures and speeches either with a small or big crowd. I love to share my opinion in the same way that I love hearing others’. The temperament that goes with this moderately extroverted personality may be described as one with a persistently fair activity level and predominantly positive moods. I am neither sensitive nor irritable. My Strengths The following qualities which I developed from home and from previous exposures in academic and extra-curricular activities will be of paramount influence if I were to be successful in obtaining a good college education. My experiences in dealing with people of various cultures made me flexible, sharpened my inter-personal skills and thought me the essence of teamwork. I am extremely thankful that my parents trained me to be self-motivated, well-organized, to have initiative, manage time well, and to act with integrity at all times. Schooling honed my problem-solving and critical thinking skills and endowed me with an entrepreneurial spirit. My Challenges The cliche that â€Å"patience is a virtue† is not yet rooted in my system. This is the greatest weakness that I need to strengthen so that I can get well adapted to college-level learning. My older friends told me that college is so much different from high school. I am starting to believe them. If the challenges I braved in high school did not seem to have developed my patience, I pray that I can invoke my inner self to help me bring out a whole lot of patience, for my own sake. I know I will be needing a lot of it now that I am in college and even more of it in the coming years. Another weakness that I need to address is my propensity to procrastinate. I have heard lots of accounts from college students that there are always so many things to do and less time to do it. I hope that I stop putting off for tomorrow what I can do for today. This way, I will be able to squeeze in all the academic requirements into my limited schedule. My Plan To be successful in college, I have devised a simple plan. This plan entails setting extremely high goals for myself. The rationale is that, even if I do not reach the goal I would have done better than being mediocre. To wit, my goal is to finish college on top of the class. My efforts will, therefore, be geared towards being number one. This means a lot of hard work, sleepless nights and patience. If I really do make it to number one, well and good. But if I do not, I may be number two, number three or even number 10, and this is not bad either. I would not aim for just a passing mark in college, because if I miss the passing mark, I would have failed since there is not much room to maneuver from merely passing to failing. Better said than done, however, setting higher standards mean harder work and lesser fun, as I would have to make advance readings for every new lesson. Reading in advance, according to research, will facilitate comprehension of concepts and theories during the class lecture better than those who did not read beforehand. Conclusion Taking this course made me both a better person and a better learner. I came to know myself better and this provided me important insight into the factors which will help me spell the difference between simply going to school and learning from school. Writing this paper propelled positive thoughts and critical thinking which enabled me to describe myself, my challenges and my plan the way I pictured them in my mind. The mere fact that I completed this requirement is proof that the course served its purpose in exploring the personal dimensions of education. While the world is a gigantic arena of learning experiences, school is always the best forum for scholarly input. Indeed, I am glad I am back to school. How to cite Back to School, Papers Back to School Free Essays Back to School: Education is very important. It determines what you can do in life. It concludes who you will become. We will write a custom essay sample on Back to School or any similar topic only for you Order Now President Barack Obama believes that education is vital and his domestic policy is still focused on education. Why does Barack Obama believe that education is so important to the United States? Why does Obama think education will make the U. S. more competitive? President Barack Obama addresses the target audience directly. The target audience is the students from kindergarten to the twelfth grade. There are two audiences; the main one is the students at Wakefield High School in Arlington, Virginia and the second audience is all the students across the United States. The audience verifies the way he directs the audience. He utilizes an informal style where he places himself at the same level as the students. Obama opens the speech with the line†Hello everyone – how’s everybody doing today? † (page 1 line 1). The language is quite simple and easy to understand. This is the language a six year old and an eighteen year old will comprehend. A very essential element in the speech is that Obama knows how to get the students to identify themselves with him. He doesn’t wish for the students to look upon him as a president; he would like them to see him as one of them, one of the students. It is important that the students recognize that he knows what they are going through. †I know that feeling. When I was young, my family lived in Indonesia for a few years, and my mother didn’t have the money to send me where all the American kids went to school. So she decided to teach me extra lessons herself, Monday through Friday – at 4:30 in the morning. (page 1 line 10 to 13). Barack Obama applies ethos. It makes him seem reliable and creditable. He appears to be more trustworthy to the audience because he shares personal experience with them. He includes them in his past by sharing a memory from his childhood. The importance of education to the United States is stated clearly in the speech. Obama states th at†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ if you quit on school – you’re not just quitting on yourself, you’re quitting on your country. † (page 2 line 63 to 64). He considers education to be fundamental for America. It is the future of the U. S. Education is a matter Obama has focused on for a long time. Even now during the election he is still focused on education, he considers that education will make the U. S. more flourishing and competitive. He knows it is not easy to do well in school and many students face challenges every day. Obama wants to encourage and inspire the students to do better. He illustrates the situations of three students Jazmin Perez, Andoni Schultz and Shantell Steve. All of them were in difficult situations and it was improbable for them to be thriving in school. Feature Article  Country School  Allen Curnow These three students are great examples of the American dream because they worked hard and never gave up. They wrote their own destiny. They formed their own future. Obama expects all students to work hard and never give up. He applies famous people who have succeeded through hard work because of the fact that they never gave up. To be successful is not easy it is one of the toughest challenges you will face. Obama clarifies that J. K. Rowling’s first Harry Potter book was declined twelve times before it was published. He exploits J. K. Rowling because she is someone numerous children and young people can relate to. She herself and the phenomenon Harry Potter is one of the greatest childhood memory of thousands of people. He phrases Michael Jordan’s famous quote â€Å"I have failed over and over and over again in my life. And that is why I succeed. † (page 4 line 130). This resembles success and failure. He comprehends to succeed because he knows exactly what it takes to fail. He has learned from each failure. And that is why he has succeeded so many times in his career. Michael Jordan is a basket ball legend. Millions of people look upon him with an enormous amount of respect. He is an ideal for anyone including all children and young people involved in sports. It is very easy for children and young people to relate to J. K. Rowling and Michael Jordan because they are who everybody admires and looks up to. Obama conveys that these two succeeded because they have failed and they have gained knowledge from each failure. He would like the students to comprehend that it is alright for you to make mistakes as long as you learn from each one. He knows that very few succeed the first time. Therefore the students must practice. Being successful is tough but Obama doesn’t want the students to give up when tougher times come along. He would like the students to try even harder. Patriotism is a crucial aspect in the speech because education is important for a nation’s competitive ability. Obama states that â€Å"†¦ don’t ever give up on yourself. Because when you give up on yourself, you give up on your country. † (page 5 line148 to 149). At this point in the speech the president concentrates on the students’ feelings. He accentuates the feeling patriotism. Pathos is thus applied. Obama employs this device because he wants the audience to recognize the importance of education. This is the most important object because no matter what you want to achieve you will need an education to get to your destination. The president utilizes rhetorical questions to engage the students and make them think. He would like a response from the students. These questions have the effect that the students will try to answer the questions and take a stand to what the president phrases â€Å"So today, I want to ask you, what’s your contribution going to be? What problems are you going to solve? What discoveries will you make? What will a president who comes here in twenty or fifty or one hundred years say about what all of you did for this country? † (page 5 line 158 to 160). Education will help the students answer these questions. It is most important value in the speech and in Obama’s domestic policy. Many anaphoras occur in the speech. The president applies them to strengthen his points and sentences. On the second page line 39 to 45 anaphoras are employed â€Å"Maybe you could be a good writer – maybe even good enough to write a book or articles in a newspaper – but you might not know it until you write a paper for your English class. Maybe you could be an innovator or an inventor – maybe even good enough to come up with the next iPhone or a new medicine or vaccine – but you might not know it until you do a project for your science class. † The president portrays the future options for the students though he emphasizes that you need to focus and pay attention in school in order to know your strengths and weaknesses. Once you know your strengths you will have a better idea of the possibilities you obtain. The students will know what direction would be better to head after high school. They have knowledge about what field they should look more into and focus on. Education is very important to the president because if the United States possesses the best education then great people will arise such as Mark Zuckerberg who founded Facebook, one of the biggest social networks. Nelson Mandela agrees with Barack Obama on the matter of education. He has stated †Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. † The most significant factor is that students take responsibility for their own education and work harder towards meeting their own goals. How to cite Back to School, Essay examples Back to School Free Essays Back to School: A Comparative Essay Walking back into school for the first time in years sent a rush of memories through my mind, from the tree I used to climb after school to the conversation that lead to the premature loss of my virginity and so much more. Surprisingly, my emotions lead me to something else altogether†¦looking at the dull concrete walls, iron laced windows and towering fences I realized; public school truly is a prison. Mind you, your average middle or high school may not have iron bars or shackles but you can â€Å"bet your bottom dollar† public schools and prisons are more alike than not. We will write a custom essay sample on Back to School or any similar topic only for you Order Now Both include guards, gangs, crowded cafeterias with bad food, strict schedules determined by vociferous bells, signed documents in order to get in or out and only God knows who will get out alive. The only things somewhat cheery about my former schools are the student murals cracked and damaged by barbaric vandals. Every student gets the same sentence: three consecutive sentences of five years, three years and four years before you can be considered a productive member of society. You might get out early for good behavior, but you are probably more likely to end up with time added on. Thinking back to my time in the â€Å"Big House†; I always felt like a criminal. Between the IDs and hall passes it seemed like no matter where I went there was someone making sure I didn’t do something horrible. Getting sent to the torture chamber called â€Å"The Hole† for the most asinine things like having a pack of matches, a metal fork or even wearing a polo that wasn’t just the right shade of green. The Hole truly was psychological torture; a tiny room with no clocks (you’d drop your phone and watch in a box as you walked into the room), the temperature was permanently set to 50 ° degrees Fahrenheit. If a single word was spoken (without permission from the teacher) it gave you an automatic extra day in The Hole and you’d be marched into the musty cafeteria far too late in the afternoon to avoid socialization. Another way of getting sent to The Hole was to be caught out of class without your student ID†¦you could be on your way to your locker to get the ID and you’d be sent to The Hole for the rest of the day. Speaking of IDs, going back to school this past week, I got a taste of â€Å"the good old days†. Trying to get into my old high school was like trying to break into Fort Knox. Having to pull out three different forms of ID, they still rejected my entry. It’s almost funny how even though I’ve graduated, every employee I encountered somehow made me feel like a criminal-just like they did back when I was still a student. My first stop was my high school and I was told in order to enter the school (just to look around) I had to make an appointment a month in advance. After hearing that I desided to hightail it over to my old middle school, this proved just as fruitless. At the middle school I was finally able to speak to a vice principal who told me I could come back after school hours; my joy was short lived when he told me I could only walk through the echoing breezeway which I had already walked through to get to the administration office. For the last time in my life, I walked out of the school feeling loathsome and reprehensible, until I got into my car. As my engine hummed it hit me; I will never have to go back there†¦and I will never have to feel like a criminal again. Considering the fact that I don’t do anything illegal, I know I won’t have to face either form of incarceration again. Also, I will never make my future children suffer through public schooling or what I like to call â€Å"Prison Life Training†; instead, they will either be homeschooled or attend private school. I was so flabbergasted by my mistreatment I had to write where my pen lead me. All in all, prison, grade school, it’s all the same to me and regardless of which one a person is in; they both feel asphyxiating and confining. How to cite Back to School, Papers

Back to School Free Essays

Learning, they say, is a continuous process. Whether one is in school, on vacation, in church, in a party or in the solitude of silence, learning takes place as long as an individual is responsive to the stimulus which kindles learning. Going back to school shall, however, always be an exhilarating experience for individuals like me who value college schooling as a sacred venture to gain steady foothold for a good future. We will write a custom essay sample on Back to School or any similar topic only for you Order Now This paper briefly describes my learning profile, my perceived strengths which will tide me over a college course, the challenges that I need to hurdle to make the most out of my tertiary education and my special formula towards a successful college life. My Learning Profile From my previous readings, I have reason to believe that I am primarily an auditory learner. I learn best by listening to lectures, rather than by reading lecture hand-outs. Believe it or not, easy listening music usually complements my studying environment. I would like to believe that I am an extrovert. If I may expound, being an extrovert made me enjoy listening to lectures and speeches either with a small or big crowd. I love to share my opinion in the same way that I love hearing others’. The temperament that goes with this moderately extroverted personality may be described as one with a persistently fair activity level and predominantly positive moods. I am neither sensitive nor irritable. My Strengths The following qualities which I developed from home and from previous exposures in academic and extra-curricular activities will be of paramount influence if I were to be successful in obtaining a good college education. My experiences in dealing with people of various cultures made me flexible, sharpened my inter-personal skills and thought me the essence of teamwork. I am extremely thankful that my parents trained me to be self-motivated, well-organized, to have initiative, manage time well, and to act with integrity at all times. Schooling honed my problem-solving and critical thinking skills and endowed me with an entrepreneurial spirit. My Challenges The cliche that â€Å"patience is a virtue† is not yet rooted in my system. This is the greatest weakness that I need to strengthen so that I can get well adapted to college-level learning. My older friends told me that college is so much different from high school. I am starting to believe them. If the challenges I braved in high school did not seem to have developed my patience, I pray that I can invoke my inner self to help me bring out a whole lot of patience, for my own sake. I know I will be needing a lot of it now that I am in college and even more of it in the coming years. Another weakness that I need to address is my propensity to procrastinate. I have heard lots of accounts from college students that there are always so many things to do and less time to do it. I hope that I stop putting off for tomorrow what I can do for today. This way, I will be able to squeeze in all the academic requirements into my limited schedule. My Plan To be successful in college, I have devised a simple plan. This plan entails setting extremely high goals for myself. The rationale is that, even if I do not reach the goal I would have done better than being mediocre. To wit, my goal is to finish college on top of the class. My efforts will, therefore, be geared towards being number one. This means a lot of hard work, sleepless nights and patience. If I really do make it to number one, well and good. But if I do not, I may be number two, number three or even number 10, and this is not bad either. I would not aim for just a passing mark in college, because if I miss the passing mark, I would have failed since there is not much room to maneuver from merely passing to failing. Better said than done, however, setting higher standards mean harder work and lesser fun, as I would have to make advance readings for every new lesson. Reading in advance, according to research, will facilitate comprehension of concepts and theories during the class lecture better than those who did not read beforehand. Conclusion Taking this course made me both a better person and a better learner. I came to know myself better and this provided me important insight into the factors which will help me spell the difference between simply going to school and learning from school. Writing this paper propelled positive thoughts and critical thinking which enabled me to describe myself, my challenges and my plan the way I pictured them in my mind. The mere fact that I completed this requirement is proof that the course served its purpose in exploring the personal dimensions of education. While the world is a gigantic arena of learning experiences, school is always the best forum for scholarly input. Indeed, I am glad I am back to school. How to cite Back to School, Papers Back to School Free Essays Back to School: Education is very important. It determines what you can do in life. It concludes who you will become. We will write a custom essay sample on Back to School or any similar topic only for you Order Now President Barack Obama believes that education is vital and his domestic policy is still focused on education. Why does Barack Obama believe that education is so important to the United States? Why does Obama think education will make the U. S. more competitive? President Barack Obama addresses the target audience directly. The target audience is the students from kindergarten to the twelfth grade. There are two audiences; the main one is the students at Wakefield High School in Arlington, Virginia and the second audience is all the students across the United States. The audience verifies the way he directs the audience. He utilizes an informal style where he places himself at the same level as the students. Obama opens the speech with the line†Hello everyone – how’s everybody doing today? † (page 1 line 1). The language is quite simple and easy to understand. This is the language a six year old and an eighteen year old will comprehend. A very essential element in the speech is that Obama knows how to get the students to identify themselves with him. He doesn’t wish for the students to look upon him as a president; he would like them to see him as one of them, one of the students. It is important that the students recognize that he knows what they are going through. †I know that feeling. When I was young, my family lived in Indonesia for a few years, and my mother didn’t have the money to send me where all the American kids went to school. So she decided to teach me extra lessons herself, Monday through Friday – at 4:30 in the morning. (page 1 line 10 to 13). Barack Obama applies ethos. It makes him seem reliable and creditable. He appears to be more trustworthy to the audience because he shares personal experience with them. He includes them in his past by sharing a memory from his childhood. The importance of education to the United States is stated clearly in the speech. Obama states th at†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ if you quit on school – you’re not just quitting on yourself, you’re quitting on your country. † (page 2 line 63 to 64). He considers education to be fundamental for America. It is the future of the U. S. Education is a matter Obama has focused on for a long time. Even now during the election he is still focused on education, he considers that education will make the U. S. more flourishing and competitive. He knows it is not easy to do well in school and many students face challenges every day. Obama wants to encourage and inspire the students to do better. He illustrates the situations of three students Jazmin Perez, Andoni Schultz and Shantell Steve. All of them were in difficult situations and it was improbable for them to be thriving in school. Feature Article  Country School  Allen Curnow These three students are great examples of the American dream because they worked hard and never gave up. They wrote their own destiny. They formed their own future. Obama expects all students to work hard and never give up. He applies famous people who have succeeded through hard work because of the fact that they never gave up. To be successful is not easy it is one of the toughest challenges you will face. Obama clarifies that J. K. Rowling’s first Harry Potter book was declined twelve times before it was published. He exploits J. K. Rowling because she is someone numerous children and young people can relate to. She herself and the phenomenon Harry Potter is one of the greatest childhood memory of thousands of people. He phrases Michael Jordan’s famous quote â€Å"I have failed over and over and over again in my life. And that is why I succeed. † (page 4 line 130). This resembles success and failure. He comprehends to succeed because he knows exactly what it takes to fail. He has learned from each failure. And that is why he has succeeded so many times in his career. Michael Jordan is a basket ball legend. Millions of people look upon him with an enormous amount of respect. He is an ideal for anyone including all children and young people involved in sports. It is very easy for children and young people to relate to J. K. Rowling and Michael Jordan because they are who everybody admires and looks up to. Obama conveys that these two succeeded because they have failed and they have gained knowledge from each failure. He would like the students to comprehend that it is alright for you to make mistakes as long as you learn from each one. He knows that very few succeed the first time. Therefore the students must practice. Being successful is tough but Obama doesn’t want the students to give up when tougher times come along. He would like the students to try even harder. Patriotism is a crucial aspect in the speech because education is important for a nation’s competitive ability. Obama states that â€Å"†¦ don’t ever give up on yourself. Because when you give up on yourself, you give up on your country. † (page 5 line148 to 149). At this point in the speech the president concentrates on the students’ feelings. He accentuates the feeling patriotism. Pathos is thus applied. Obama employs this device because he wants the audience to recognize the importance of education. This is the most important object because no matter what you want to achieve you will need an education to get to your destination. The president utilizes rhetorical questions to engage the students and make them think. He would like a response from the students. These questions have the effect that the students will try to answer the questions and take a stand to what the president phrases â€Å"So today, I want to ask you, what’s your contribution going to be? What problems are you going to solve? What discoveries will you make? What will a president who comes here in twenty or fifty or one hundred years say about what all of you did for this country? † (page 5 line 158 to 160). Education will help the students answer these questions. It is most important value in the speech and in Obama’s domestic policy. Many anaphoras occur in the speech. The president applies them to strengthen his points and sentences. On the second page line 39 to 45 anaphoras are employed â€Å"Maybe you could be a good writer – maybe even good enough to write a book or articles in a newspaper – but you might not know it until you write a paper for your English class. Maybe you could be an innovator or an inventor – maybe even good enough to come up with the next iPhone or a new medicine or vaccine – but you might not know it until you do a project for your science class. † The president portrays the future options for the students though he emphasizes that you need to focus and pay attention in school in order to know your strengths and weaknesses. Once you know your strengths you will have a better idea of the possibilities you obtain. The students will know what direction would be better to head after high school. They have knowledge about what field they should look more into and focus on. Education is very important to the president because if the United States possesses the best education then great people will arise such as Mark Zuckerberg who founded Facebook, one of the biggest social networks. Nelson Mandela agrees with Barack Obama on the matter of education. He has stated †Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. † The most significant factor is that students take responsibility for their own education and work harder towards meeting their own goals. How to cite Back to School, Essay examples Back to School Free Essays Back to School: A Comparative Essay Walking back into school for the first time in years sent a rush of memories through my mind, from the tree I used to climb after school to the conversation that lead to the premature loss of my virginity and so much more. Surprisingly, my emotions lead me to something else altogether†¦looking at the dull concrete walls, iron laced windows and towering fences I realized; public school truly is a prison. Mind you, your average middle or high school may not have iron bars or shackles but you can â€Å"bet your bottom dollar† public schools and prisons are more alike than not. We will write a custom essay sample on Back to School or any similar topic only for you Order Now Both include guards, gangs, crowded cafeterias with bad food, strict schedules determined by vociferous bells, signed documents in order to get in or out and only God knows who will get out alive. The only things somewhat cheery about my former schools are the student murals cracked and damaged by barbaric vandals. Every student gets the same sentence: three consecutive sentences of five years, three years and four years before you can be considered a productive member of society. You might get out early for good behavior, but you are probably more likely to end up with time added on. Thinking back to my time in the â€Å"Big House†; I always felt like a criminal. Between the IDs and hall passes it seemed like no matter where I went there was someone making sure I didn’t do something horrible. Getting sent to the torture chamber called â€Å"The Hole† for the most asinine things like having a pack of matches, a metal fork or even wearing a polo that wasn’t just the right shade of green. The Hole truly was psychological torture; a tiny room with no clocks (you’d drop your phone and watch in a box as you walked into the room), the temperature was permanently set to 50 ° degrees Fahrenheit. If a single word was spoken (without permission from the teacher) it gave you an automatic extra day in The Hole and you’d be marched into the musty cafeteria far too late in the afternoon to avoid socialization. Another way of getting sent to The Hole was to be caught out of class without your student ID†¦you could be on your way to your locker to get the ID and you’d be sent to The Hole for the rest of the day. Speaking of IDs, going back to school this past week, I got a taste of â€Å"the good old days†. Trying to get into my old high school was like trying to break into Fort Knox. Having to pull out three different forms of ID, they still rejected my entry. It’s almost funny how even though I’ve graduated, every employee I encountered somehow made me feel like a criminal-just like they did back when I was still a student. My first stop was my high school and I was told in order to enter the school (just to look around) I had to make an appointment a month in advance. After hearing that I desided to hightail it over to my old middle school, this proved just as fruitless. At the middle school I was finally able to speak to a vice principal who told me I could come back after school hours; my joy was short lived when he told me I could only walk through the echoing breezeway which I had already walked through to get to the administration office. For the last time in my life, I walked out of the school feeling loathsome and reprehensible, until I got into my car. As my engine hummed it hit me; I will never have to go back there†¦and I will never have to feel like a criminal again. Considering the fact that I don’t do anything illegal, I know I won’t have to face either form of incarceration again. Also, I will never make my future children suffer through public schooling or what I like to call â€Å"Prison Life Training†; instead, they will either be homeschooled or attend private school. I was so flabbergasted by my mistreatment I had to write where my pen lead me. All in all, prison, grade school, it’s all the same to me and regardless of which one a person is in; they both feel asphyxiating and confining. How to cite Back to School, Papers

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Walter Lippman Essay Example For Students

Walter Lippman Essay This research among other objectives seeks to establish whether it is possible to have a non-partisan public press that gives equal opportunity to different voices to air their views thereby eliciting numerous facets or views of the same story. Clearly the problem in Africa has been that of a partisan, usually government media, fanning the fire in conflicts to a point where one of the sides thinks it has no choice but to reply by starting a fight. As the fighting rages on, more fuel is poured on the political fire by a partisan press, resulting in a full-scale war. In 1999, Walter Lippman enunciated his belief that the presentation of truthful news lies at the heart of democracy. But he said, there are difficulties .. they are that there is a problem of the news which is of absolutely basic importance to the survival of popular government, and that the importance of that problem is not vividly realized nor sufficiently considered. Lippman (1920: 14) Although more than eight decades have passed since Mr Lippman penned his appraisal, the problems of news communication in a democratic society are still with us. The following study stems from the authors conviction that opinion and policy making remain significant, inter related processes within any political system. A democracy based on criteria of popular control and consultation, poses its particular ticklish questions of the manner and means by which political ideas, opinions and issues are transmitted throughout the body politic. In most countries, communication is carried on primarily through the news media. News people and their sources of news interact to form a set of relationships crucial in the linkage of citizen and official. We will write a custom essay on Walter Lippman specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The significant information on which a citizen in a democracy must base his political actions is most often chaneled, in some form, through the written or spoken press or in more placid periods this activity is generally taken for granted. Few citizens, for example, are normally sensitive to the function served by the media or mediated information in the politics of their democracy. Although we may accept in principle, Jeffersons maxim that No government ought to be without censors and where the press is free, no one ever will. People seldom concern themselves with weather the media can and does perform this critical role. But in times of so-called national importance such as an election the citizens seek out the aid of the columnist, and the commentator by reading beyond the headlines and eagerly twisting the dial. PSB that may be distinguished from the state controlled broadcasters that still exist in many countries, can help to maintain diversity in light of these developments and play an important role in fulfilling the publics right to know. Freedom of expression, as guaranteed by Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, includes the right not only to seek and impart knowledge and ideas but also the right to receive them. This has been held to require states to take positive measures to ensure the existence of an environment, in which a pluralistic media can flourish, providing information from a wide variety of sources to citizens. An independent, adequately funded and accountable PSB is a crucial component of that environment. True to Lippman`s word, the presentation of truthful news is a touchstone of all human rights and it is most important for information societies, in which citizens receive most of their information by the mass media and in which their attitudes are dominantly shaped by the mass media. The ability of television news to influence public opinion to any significant extent was probably not fully recognised until the mid 1990`s, after the broadcasters had demonstrated that the new communications technology combined with a willingness among some services to co-operate regularly in the exchange of new material could make pictures of any important event available beyond national boundaries within hours. Over the years world audiences shared the J. .u3833d25a41e1b6de3164ce9b30c508a8 , .u3833d25a41e1b6de3164ce9b30c508a8 .postImageUrl , .u3833d25a41e1b6de3164ce9b30c508a8 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u3833d25a41e1b6de3164ce9b30c508a8 , .u3833d25a41e1b6de3164ce9b30c508a8:hover , .u3833d25a41e1b6de3164ce9b30c508a8:visited , .u3833d25a41e1b6de3164ce9b30c508a8:active { border:0!important; } .u3833d25a41e1b6de3164ce9b30c508a8 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u3833d25a41e1b6de3164ce9b30c508a8 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u3833d25a41e1b6de3164ce9b30c508a8:active , .u3833d25a41e1b6de3164ce9b30c508a8:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u3833d25a41e1b6de3164ce9b30c508a8 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u3833d25a41e1b6de3164ce9b30c508a8 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u3833d25a41e1b6de3164ce9b30c508a8 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u3833d25a41e1b6de3164ce9b30c508a8 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u3833d25a41e1b6de3164ce9b30c508a8:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u3833d25a41e1b6de3164ce9b30c508a8 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u3833d25a41e1b6de3164ce9b30c508a8 .u3833d25a41e1b6de3164ce9b30c508a8-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u3833d25a41e1b6de3164ce9b30c508a8:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: History abut culinary arts EssayF. Kennedy assassination, student riots, Watergate, terrorism and various wars including Vietnam and the Middle East and nothing could be the same again. Yorke (2002: 2) argues: .. by the 1980`s, anyone who remained skeptical about the power of television news to move the public opinion must have had all doubts swept aside by the astonishing spontaneous responses to the appearance in October 1984 of harrowing pictures of famine in Ethiopia. The impetus for the creation of the Band Aid Relief Fund and all that has followed in an attempt to alleviate the suffering of millions can be attributed directly to the reports seen on the news bulletins on an established four hundred plus broadcasting organisations. The same pool of material from television news influenced opinion about what was happening in the late 1990`s in Rwanda, Kosovo and Indonesia. Todays news programming has become an accepted part of the culture of every society which embraces television. Those who report and present the news are famous enough to be caricatured. Their faces adorn magazine front pages. Their on screen performances and salaries they earn for them, are the subject of endless discussion and speculation. How they leave their private life, what they wear, what they do and what they say, especially if it is controversial in the slightest, are followed with almost indeceit interest by the press and the public. The popularity of broadcast journalism as a career remains undiminished despite the growth of Internet services and online news. Almost every halfway literate, youngster, it seems, wants to be in the media. Television news has become a respectable subject for serious academic study, especially by sociologists postulating theories about the role and motivation of the practitioners and the influence they bring to bear on agenda setting what stories they choose to cover and then how they process them. Every so often an aggrieved public figure will complain angrily about the stories got up by the media or the concentration on personalities rather than issues. In Zimbabwe the growing trend amongst aggrieved politicians is to cry out loud for being misquoted. The suspicion exists that the establishment no matter what party holds power, or who runs the church, the judiciary or the military or industrial complex dictates what and how television reports. But there is probably greater genuine surprise that television journalists do not see it as their first duty to protect society from the unpalatable, the outwardly reasonable view being that the world would be a better place if items about civil disturbance and similarly distasteful events were simply not shown. It is important to note at the outset that in many countries television is controlled or funded by governments. It is not difficult to appreciate that many news services are able to produce little except what is officially sanctioned. In addition, foreign camera crews and reporters cannot fly in with their equipment to anywhere they please and expect to start work. Some countries simply refuse to allow them entry visas to get in, others may take months and when the permission is finally granted the presence of minders may be so inhibiting that the reports that are made may be no more informative than those old-fashioned cinema travelogues. There is always the danger that an organisation funded by the government and directed by the elite is likely to favour the government line. That (in) famously, is what happened in the 1926 General Strike, when the first Director General of the BBC, Lord Reith, argued that the BBC was the peoples service and the government was the peoples choice, so it followed that the BBC supported the government. (http://www. cultsock. ndirect. co. uk9/21/2003).

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Free Essays on Childhood Event

Perfect Student An old substitute stood before our loud fifth grade class. Usually, we didn’t act this way but both of our teachers were gone, so everyone saw this chance for freedom. â€Å"Sit down in your seats,† she barked. Since our regular teacher had never yelled at us, every child’s face illustrated the amazement to this new idea. Then she handed out what seemed to be a thousand papers, none of which stimulated our minds, especially me. I sat there attempting to do some of the papers she had assigned. I wasn’t a bad child, nor did I want to be. I usually did my work as I was told to, but this day I was feeling unusually rebellious, almost as though a burst of energy had shot through my young undeveloped body. I ripped a piece of paper out of my notebook and scribbled a note to a classmate, a note which normally I would not have wrote a note which I swore in. In my note I depicted the substitute as a â€Å"bitch† and stated that I wanted this day to end so I could go home. Though this note does not seem as important to me now, it did then. It was very important; I wasn’t the type of child to do anything like this. I told my classmate to rip up the note and throw it away after she finished reading it. Most of the boys in my class had not left the kindergarten maturity level yet, so they had this idea that picking through the trash and recycling bin to find note pieces was fun. They picked through and pieced entire notes back together. Of course my note was found, pieced back together and handed to the principal. So there I sat alone in the principal’s office, a room I had never seen the interior of. The only time I talked to the man was the occasional times he entered our fifth grade classroom to speak with our nutty teachers. I was the quintessential good girl. I never did anything to upset a teacher, and there I sat awaiting my trial. He slowly entered the room, closing the large metal door, which looked ... Free Essays on Childhood Event Free Essays on Childhood Event Perfect Student An old substitute stood before our loud fifth grade class. Usually, we didn’t act this way but both of our teachers were gone, so everyone saw this chance for freedom. â€Å"Sit down in your seats,† she barked. Since our regular teacher had never yelled at us, every child’s face illustrated the amazement to this new idea. Then she handed out what seemed to be a thousand papers, none of which stimulated our minds, especially me. I sat there attempting to do some of the papers she had assigned. I wasn’t a bad child, nor did I want to be. I usually did my work as I was told to, but this day I was feeling unusually rebellious, almost as though a burst of energy had shot through my young undeveloped body. I ripped a piece of paper out of my notebook and scribbled a note to a classmate, a note which normally I would not have wrote a note which I swore in. In my note I depicted the substitute as a â€Å"bitch† and stated that I wanted this day to end so I could go home. Though this note does not seem as important to me now, it did then. It was very important; I wasn’t the type of child to do anything like this. I told my classmate to rip up the note and throw it away after she finished reading it. Most of the boys in my class had not left the kindergarten maturity level yet, so they had this idea that picking through the trash and recycling bin to find note pieces was fun. They picked through and pieced entire notes back together. Of course my note was found, pieced back together and handed to the principal. So there I sat alone in the principal’s office, a room I had never seen the interior of. The only time I talked to the man was the occasional times he entered our fifth grade classroom to speak with our nutty teachers. I was the quintessential good girl. I never did anything to upset a teacher, and there I sat awaiting my trial. He slowly entered the room, closing the large metal door, which looked ...

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Temperance Movement and Prohibition Timeline

Temperance Movement and Prohibition Timeline The 19th and early 20th century saw considerable organizing for temperance or prohibition.   Temperance usually refers to seeking to inspire individuals to moderate liquor use or abstain from drinking liquor. Prohibition usually refers to making it illegal to manufacture or sell alcohol. The Effects on Families   The effects of drunkenness on families―in a society in which women had limited rights to divorce or custody, or even to control their own earnings―and the growing evidence of medical effects of alcohol, prompted efforts to convince individuals to take the pledge to abstain from alcohol, and then to persuade states, localities and eventually the nation to prohibit the manufacture and sale of alcohol. Some religious groups, notably the Methodists, believed that drinking liquor was sinful. The Progressive Movement By the early 20th century, the liquor industry, like other industries, had extended its control. In many cities, saloons and taverns were controlled or owned by liquor companies. The growing presence of women in the political sphere was accompanied by and reinforced by the belief that women had a special role in preserving families and health and thus to work to end liquor consumption, manufacture and sale. The Progressive movement often took the side of temperance and prohibition. The 18th Amendment   In 1918 and 1919, the federal government passed the 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, making manufacture, transportation, and sale of intoxicating liquors illegal under its power to regulate interstate commerce.   The proposal became the Eighteenth Amendment in 1919 and took effect in 1920.  It was the First Amendment to include a time limit for ratification, though it was quickly ratified by 46 of the 48 states. Decriminalizing the Liquor Industry   It was soon clear that criminalizing liquor had increased the power of organized crime and the corruption of law enforcement, and that consumption of liquor continued.   By the early 1930s, public sentiment was on the side of decriminalizing the liquor industry, and in 1933, the 21st Amendment overturned the 18th and prohibition ended. Some states continued to permit a local option for prohibition or to control liquor statewide. The following timeline shows the chronology of some of the major events in the movement to convince individuals to abstain from liquor and the movement to prohibit commerce in liquor. Timeline Year Event 1773 John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, preached that drinking alcohol was sinful. 1813 Connecticut Society for the Reformation of Morals founded. 1813 Massachusetts Society for the Suppression of Intemperance founded. 1820s The consumption of alcohol in the U.S. was 7 gallons per capita per year. 1826 Boston area ministers founded the American Temperance Society (ATS). 1831 American Temperance Society had 2,220 local chapters and 170,000 members. 1833 American Temperance Union (ATU) founded, merging two existing national temperance organizations. 1834 American Temperance Society had 5,000 local chapters and 1 million members. 1838 Massachusetts prohibited the sale of alcohol in amounts less than 15 gallons. 1839 September 28: Frances Willard born. 1840 Consumption of alcohol in the U.S. had been lowered to 3 gallons of alcohol per year per capita. 1840 Massachusetts repealed its 1838 prohibition law but permitted local option. 1840 Washington Temperance Society founded in Baltimore on April 2, named for the first U.S. president. Its members were reformed heavy drinkers from the working class who took the pledge to abstain from alcohol, and the movement to establish local Washington Temperance Societies was called the Washingtonian movement. 1842 John B. Gough took the pledge and began lecturing against drinking, becoming a major orator for the movement. 1842 Washington Society publicized that they had inspired 600,000 abstinence pledges. 1843 Washington Societies had mostly disappeared. 1845 Maine passed statewide prohibition; other states followed with what were called Maine laws. 1845 In Massachusetts, under the 1840 local option law, 100 towns had local prohibition laws. 1846 November 25: Carrie Nation (or Carry) born in Kentucky: future prohibition activist whose method was vandalism. 1850 Consumption of alcohol in the U.S. had been lowered to 2 gallons of alcohol per year per capita. 1851 Maine prohibited the sale or making of any alcoholic beverage. 1855 13 of the 40 states had prohibition laws. 1867 Carrie (or Carry) Amelia Moore married Dr. Charles Gloyd; he died in 1869 of the effects of alcoholism. Her second marriage was in 1874, to David A. Nation, a minister, and attorney. 1869 National Prohibition Party founded. 1872 National Prohibition Party nominated James Black (Pennsylvania) for President; he received 2,100 votes 1873 December 23: Womens Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) organized. 1874 Womens Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) officially founded at its Cleveland national convention. Annie Wittenmyer elected president and advocated focusing on the single issue of prohibition. 1876 Worlds Womens Christian Temperance Union founded. 1876 National Prohibition Party nominated Green Clay Smith (Kentucky) for President; he received 6,743 votes 1879 Frances Willard became president of the WCTU. She led the organization in being active in working for a living wage, the 8-hour day, womens suffrage, peace, and other issues. 1880 National Prohibition Party nominated Neal Dow (Maine) for President; he received 9,674 votes 1881 WCTU membership was 22,800. 1884 National Prohibition Party nominated John P. St. John (Kansas) for President; he received 147,520 votes. 1888 The Supreme Court struck down state prohibition laws if they forbid the sale of alcohol that was transported into the state in its original passage, on the basis of the federal power to regulate interstate commerce. Thus, hotels and clubs could sell an unopened bottle of liquor, even if the state banned alcohol sales. 1888 Frances Willard elected president of the Worlds WCTU. 1888 National Prohibition Party nominated Clinton B. Fisk (New Jersey) for President; he received 249,813 votes. 1889 Carry Nation and her family moved to Kansas, where she began a chapter of the WCTU and began working to enforce the liquor ban in that state. 1891 WCTU membership was 138,377. 1892 National Prohibition Party nominated John Bidwell (California) for President; he received 270,770 votes, the largest any of their candidates ever received. 1895 American Anti-Saloon League founded. (Some sources date this to 1893) 1896 National Prohibition Party nominated Joshua Levering (Maryland) for President; he received 125,072 votes. In a party fight, Charles Bentley of Nebraska was also nominated; he received 19,363 votes. 1898 February 17: Frances Willard died. Lillian M. N. Stevens succeeded her as president of the WCTU, serving until 1914. 1899 Kansas prohibition advocate, nearly six foot tall Carry Nation, began a 10-year campaign against illegal saloons in Kansas, destroying furniture and liquor containers with an ax while dressed as a Methodist deaconess. She was often jailed; lecture fees and ax sales paid her fines. 1900 National Prohibition Party nominated John G. Woolley (Illinois) for President; he received 209,004 votes. 1901 WCTU membership was 158,477. 1901 WCTU took a position against the playing of golf on Sundays. 1904 National Prohibition Party nominated Silas C. Swallow (Pennsylvania) for President; he received 258,596 votes. 1907 The state constitution of Oklahoma included prohibition. 1908 In Massachusetts, 249 towns and 18 cities banned alcohol. 1908 National Prohibition Party nominated Eugene W. Chapin (Illinois) for President; he received 252,821 votes. 1909 There were more saloons than schools, churches or libraries in the United States: one per 300 citizens. 1911 WCTU membership was 245,299. 1911 Carry Nation, prohibition activist who destroyed saloon property from 1900-1910, died. She was buried in Missouri, where the local WCTU erected a tombstone with the epitaph She hath done what she could. 1912 National Prohibition Party nominated Eugene W. Chapin (Illinois) for President; he received 207,972 votes. Woodrow Wilson won the election. 1912 Congress passed a law overturning the Supreme Courts 1888 ruling, permitting states to forbid all alcohol, even in containers that had been sold in interstate commerce. 1914 Anna Adams Gordon became the fourth president of the WCTU, serving until 1925. 1914 The Anti-Saloon League proposed a constitutional amendment to prohibit the sale of alcohol. 1916 Sidney J. Catts elected Florida Governor as a Prohibition Party candidate. 1916 National Prohibition Party nominated J. Frank Hanly (Indiana) for President; he received 221,030 votes. 1917 Wartime prohibition passed. Anti-German feelings transferred to being against beer. Prohibition advocates argued that the liquor industry was an unpatriotic use of resources, especially grain. 1917 Senate and House passed resolutions with the language of the 18th Amendment and sent it to the states for ratification. 1918 The following states ratified the 18th Amendment: Mississippi, Virginia, Kentucky, North Dakota, South Carolina, Maryland, Montana, Texas, Delaware, South Dakota, Massachusetts, Arizona, Georgia, Louisiana, Florida. Connecticut voted against ratification. 1919 January 2 - 16: the following states ratified the 18th Amendment: Michigan, Ohio, Oklahoma, Idaho, Maine, West Virginia, California, Tennessee, Washington, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Alabama, Colorado, Iowa, New Hampshire, Oregon, North Carolina, Utah, Nebraska, Missouri, Wyoming. 1919 January 16: 18th Amendment ratified, establishing prohibition as the law of the land. The ratification was certified on January 29. 1919 January 17 - February 25: although the requisite number of states had already ratified the 18th Amendment, the following states also ratified it: Minnesota, Wisconsin, New Mexico, Nevada, New York, Vermont, Pennsylvania. Rhode Island became the second (of two) states to vote against ratification. 1919 Congress passed the Volstead Act over President Woodrow Wilsons veto, establishing procedures and powers to enforce prohibition under the 18th Amendment. 1920 January: Prohibition Era began. 1920 National Prohibition Party nominated Aaron S. Watkins (Ohio) for President; he received 188,685 votes. 1920 August 26: the 19th Amendment, granting the vote to women, became law. (The Day the Suffrage Battle Was Won 1921 WCTU membership was 344,892. 1922 Although the 18th Amendment had already been ratified, New Jersey added its ratification vote on March 9, becoming the 48th of 48 states to take a position on the Amendment, and the 46th state to vote for ratification. 1924 National Prohibition Party nominated Herman P. Faris (Missouri) for President, and a woman, Marie C. Brehm (California), for Vice President; they received 54,833 votes. 1925 Ella Alexander Boole became president of the WCTU, serving until 1933. 1928 National Prohibition Party nominating William F. Varney (New York) for president, narrowly failing to endorse Herbert Hoover instead. Varney received 20,095 votes. Herbert Hoover ran on the party ticket in California and won 14,394 votes from that party line. 1931 Membership in the WCTU was at its peak, 372,355. 1932 National Prohibition Party nominated William D. Upshaw (Georgia) for President; he received 81,916 votes. 1933 Ida Belle Wise Smith became president of the WCTU, serving until 1944. 1933 21st Amendment passed, repealing the 18th Amendment and prohibition. 1933 December: 21st Amendment took effect, repealing the 18th Amendment and thus prohibition. 1936 National Prohibition Party nominated D. Leigh Colvin (New York) for President; he received 37,667 votes. 1940 National Prohibition Party nominated Roger W. Babson (Massachusetts) for President; he received 58,743 votes. 1941 WCTU membership had fallen to 216,843. 1944 Mamie White Colvin became president of the WCTU, serving until 1953. 1944 National Prohibition Party nominated Claude A. Watson (California) for President; he received 74,735 votes 1948 National Prohibition Party nominated Claude A. Watson (California) for President; he received 103,489 votes 1952 National Prohibition Party nominated Stuart Hamblen (California) for President; he received 73,413 votes. The party continued to run candidates in subsequent elections, never gaining as many as 50,000 votes again. 1953 Agnes Dubbs Hays became president of the WCTU, serving until 1959.